A five-year-old classic (more relevant than ever) from Rev. Wil Gafney, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Biblical Hebrew and Jewish and Christian Scripture (reposted from The Huffington Post, 1/15/2013)
Rape is at the forefront of our civil discourse in ways it has not been in my memory or experience: A young woman raped to the point of death in India has been the focus of international media. During the run up to the presidential election Rep. Todd Akin articulated his belief in legitimate and illegitimate rape as medical certainty proved by whether or not a woman conceived as evidence that women lie about being raped to get abortions. There were so many egregious GOP statements about rape that many conservative women and some men are horrified that their party has become lampooned as the “party of rape.” But rape is not a Republican problem, an American problem, an Indian, Darfurian or Congolese problem. It is a human problem, and because many humans are religious, it is also a religious problem.
Rape is normative in the Jewish and Christian Scriptures. The texts in which women are raped are legion: Numbers 31:15-18; Deuteronomy 21:10-14; Judges 19:22-26. Shockingly, for many religious readers, God, Moses and the Torah call for the rape of women (and killing of their infants) as a normative practice in war. (I present at some length on sanctioned rape in the Scriptures here.) Perhaps most shocking of all is that the God of the text — who for many readers is their God — uses the language of rape normatively to describe his (in this case I yield to tradition) justified punishment of Israel, positioning himself as the rapist of his errant and deserving wife. Dr. Kate Blanchard expresses the horror of the unsuspecting reader:
Quick — which famous religious personality voiced this angry tirade: “Remove your veil, take off the skirt, uncover the thigh… Your nakedness shall be uncovered, your shame will be seen; I will take vengeance”? Or this: “It is for the greatness of your iniquity that your skirts are lifted up, and you suffer violence… I myself will lift up your skirts over your face, and your shame will be seen”? Or this: “She did not give up her whorings… in her youth men had lain with her and fondled her virgin bosom and poured out their lust upon her. Therefore I delivered her into the hands of her lovers, for whom she lusted. They uncovered her nakedness… and they killed her with the sword. Judgment was executed upon her, and she became a byword among women”?
Yep, you guessed it: The God of the Hebrew and Christian scriptures (Isaiah 47, Jeremiah 13, and Ezekiel 23). The translations of these shining examples of victim-blaming are clear enough, despite the old-fashioned language: I’m angry and you’re going to suffer for it. You deserve to be raped because of your sexual exploits. You’re a slut and it was just a matter of time till you suffered the consequences. Let this be a lesson to you and to all other uppity women.
Dr. Blanchard’s blog, “Rape is God’s Problem Too,” points to the ways assumptions about the right of males (human and divine) to do whatever they want to the bodies of human women — no feminine divines here — especially in the name of “love,” is deeply embedded in our civil and religious cultures.
How and why does it matter that rape-language is used in the Bible for God? (It’s just metaphorical, right?) In “Ancient Laws and Contemporary Controversies: The Need for Inclusive Biblical Interpretation,” the Rev. Dr. Cheryl Anderson tells the story of a young woman, who when confronted with rape-narratives in her Scriptures says, “This is the word of God. If it says slavery is okay, slavery is okay. If it says rape is okay, rape is okay.” The authority of the Bible — accorded and wielded — mean that biblical gender norms, however patriarchal, misogynistic and rapacious are presumed to divinely articulated and intended and, not the product of an Iron Age patriarchal, misogynistic and rapacious society engaged in Stone Age theology.
What has helped me as a religious reader for whom these texts are scripture is understanding how and why this violent rhetoric was deployed. Seeing that language as a tool of persuasion and not a divine articulation of right relationships between women and men has been liberating for me. The Rev. Dr. Renita J. Weems‘ classic exposition of the rhetoric of rape in “Battered Love: Marriage, Sex and Violence in the Hebrew Prophets“ ably demonstrates how the Hebrew prophets took the normative violence against women and turned it against men in ancient Israel casting them in the role of the sex-crazed disobedient wife whose physical and sexual abuse at the hands of her husband (God) is justified.
While we as women and men decry rape and rape culture in civil society, we must not neglect its roots in our sacred texts and the ways in which it contributes to theologies of the human person, gender and God. It is clear to me that biblical tradents were not able to envision a world in which rape was not normative. Fortunately, I can.
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